Changes in the gene pool of more than one species over time is known as

A. Mutation†††††††††††

B. Hybridization†††

C. Coevolution††††††

D. Natural selection††††††††††††††††††

E. Genetic shift















The realized niche of a species is ______________ its fundamental niche.

A. The same as††††††

B. Larger than†††††††

C. Not effected by

D. Smaller than††††

E. Independent from



















Broad niches are characteristic of

A. Generalist species†††††††††††††††

B. Extinct species

C. Natural species

D. Competitive species††††††††††††

E. Specialist species




















The alteration of an organismís genetic material through adding, deleting, or changing segments of DNA is known as

A. Genetic engineering†††

B. Cloning††††††††††

C. Transgenic organisms††††††††††

D. Bioengineering†††††††††††††††††††††

E. Artificial selection


















The process of using genetically engineered animals to act as biofactories for the production of consumables such as drugs, chemicals and human body organs is known as

A. Evolution††††††††††

B. Genetic engineering††††††††††††

C. Cloning††††††††††††††

D. Biopharming††††

E. Natural selection

















Which habitat has the highest number of species?

A. Tropical rainforest††††

B. Temperate forest††††††††††††††††††

C. Short-grass prairie††††††††††††††††

D. Savannah†††††††††††

E. Boreal forest




















Habitat fragmentation that increases the edge area around a community can

A. Make species less vulnerable to fire††††††

B. Allow species to increase their genetic variation††††††

C. Increase the propagule pressure of a community

D. Make species less vulnerable to predators

E. Create barriers that prevent species from colonizing new areas


















Species richness is defined as

A. The abundance of individuals within a species††

B. The number of different species within a community†††

C. The amount of food types a species consumes

D. The number of niches a species occupies

E. The diversity of species within a community



















A species that plays a major role in shaping communities by creating and enhancing habitat is a

A. Keystone species

B. Invasive species††

C. Charismatic species††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

D. Indicator species

E. Foundation species



















When lions and leopards live in the same area, lions take mostly larger animals as prey and leopards take smaller ones to avoid direct competition.This is referred to as

A. Resource partitioning††††

B. Symbiosis††††††††††††

C. Commensalism††††

D. Mutualism†††††††††††

E. Predator-prey competition


















The fact that a community consists of an ever-changing mosaic of vegetation patches at different stages of succession conflicts with the idea of a

A. Balance of nature††††††††

B. Foundation species†††††††

C. Pioneer species††††††††††††

D. Late successional species††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

E. Climax community

















Which of the following would be most vulnerable to extinction?

A. a mold that attacks wheat in the field

B. an orchid endemic to an area where logging is occurring

C. a healthy plant, such as a pine tree, that completely dominates its native environment

D. a migratory flock of warblers stopping along its winter route to feed on local resources that are now gone and replaced by a suburb

E. a moth, brought to the United States for silk production, escaping into the wild and becoming established













Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs ________.

A. because of the erosion of farmlands through poor agricultural practices

B. due to the burning of fossil fuels to meet our energy needs

C. as we produce synthetic fertilizers and apply them to crops, lawns, and parks

D. by using antibiotics to reduce the numbers of denitrifying bacteria

E. by selectively removing leguminous plants















You are studying species diversity in the Caribbean islands. Which island would you expect to have the most number of species?

A. a large island near the mainland†† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. a medium-sized island is the middle of an island chain†† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. a medium-sized island near the mainland

D. a large island far removed from other sites††

E. a small island far removed from other sites††


















A. a treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species. ††

B. a set of regulations controlling the introduction of exotic species.††

C. a pact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlife.††

D. an international organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered species.††

E. an American law that catalogues all known endangered species and uses Custom Agents to confiscate any that come into the country














Freshwater systems are mostly threatened by

A. fertilizer runoff†† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. invasive species†† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† E

C. industrial development

D. more people seeking homes and places for recreation near lakes and streams††

E. more people seeking homes and places for recreation on coastal areas††



















The worldwide drop in sperm counts among men has been attributed to _______.

A. DDT ††††††††††††††††††

B. teratogens†††††††††††

C. endocrine disruptors†††††††††††††††††††††††††

D. radon †††††††††††††††††

E. allergens


















The Toxic Substances Control Act regulates _______.

A. industrial chemicals†† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. drugs ††††††††††††††††††

C. pesticides †††††††††††

D. food additives ††††

E. cosmetics




















Mercury is not readily excreted; it is stored in mammalian body tissues. This is best described as _______.

A. distillation †††††††††

B. toxification ††††††††

C. biomagnification

D. synergism†††††††††

E. bioaccumulation


















Aquatic animals such as fish and frogs are especially good indicators of pollution because _______.

A. they are easy to catch ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. these organisms are the most abundant on earth

C. most chemicals are water soluble

D. all chemical toxicants are found in water

E. the metabolism of these organisms is most like ours



















Synergistic effects of toxicants _______.

A. have effects that tend to cancel one another out ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. typically have simple additive effects††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. are not numerous in the natural environment

D. often have effects that are multiplicative

E. always involve synthetic toxicants




















The resilience of a community is defined as

A.                   The ability of the community to repair damage after a moderate disturbance

B.                   The ability of a community to resist being disturbed

C.                   The ability of a community to keep its population size limited by its resources

D.                   The ability of a community to tolerate exponential population growth

E.                   The ability of a community to alter its successional processes















Why do communities with higher biodiversity also have higher net primary productivity?

A.      They are more resistant to being disturbed

B.                   They are able to maintain population sizes of component species

C.                   Each species is able to exploit a different portion of the available resources

D.                   These communities have lower numbers of herbivores

E.                   Each species is able to compete more effectively
















Why are some animals, such as frogs, so brightly colored?

A. The colors are used for camouflage in the tropical forests

B. The colors are used to attract mates

C. The colors are used for parental identification by offspring

D. The colors are used to startle competitors

E. The colors are used to warn predators that the frogs are toxic
















The relationship between flowering plants and bees is best described as _______.

A. predation†††††††††††††††††††††

B. parasitism††††††††††††††††††††

C. herbivory†††††††††††††††††††††

D. mutualism††††††††††††††††

E. competition



















The relationship between flowering plants and caterpillars is best described as _______.

A. amensalism††††††††††††††††††

B. parasitism††††††††††††††††††††

C. herbivory†††††††††††††††††††

D. mutualism††††††††††††††††††††

E. commensalism



















The IUCN's Red List is ________.

A. a list of unidentified species†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. an identification list of known species††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. an updated list of species facing unusually high risk of extinction

D. a scorecard of international failures at conservation

E. a list of ecologically damaged ecosystems



















Bullfrog tadpoles are often sold as fish bait, even in areas where they do not occur naturally. When people buy 10 of them and don't use them all, they often dump the remainder into the lake or river. This is an example of ________. †††††

A. extermination††††

B. overharvesting of species from the wild†††

C. introduced species†††

D. inbreeding†††††††††††

E. habitat destruction
















Biodiversity enhances food security because it ________.

A. increases the number of available pathogens†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. decreases the number of predators†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. means that there is genetic uniformity

D. protects crops against losses due to disease

E. reduces the number of pollinators



















Which of the following are facing the highest rates of extinction?††††††††††††††††††††††††

A. birds in general††††

B. plants in general††

C. K-strategists †††

D. r-strategists in general††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

E. insects in general



















The species most often vulnerable to human impact is the ________.††††††††††††††††††

A. keystone species

B. decomposer†††††††††

C. competitive species†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††

D. producer†††††††††††††

E. top predator



















Ecotourism ________.

A. decreases biodiversity by causing increased speciation in environmentally sensitive areas

B. increases biodiversity by introducing new, rare species

C. is a reasonable option only in impoverished countries

D. increases biodiversity by providing income from areas that might otherwise be destroyed

E. decreases biodiversity by selling souvenir organisms















The country of Belize depends on lobster for a major portion of its income, along with fishing and tourism. Over the past 30 years the average size of an individual lobster has dropped, even as increasing numbers of Belizeans buy boats, build lobster traps, and enter the industry. This is an example of ________.

A. habitat alteration††

B. effects of pollution††

C. overharvesting††

D. results of an invasive species†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††

E. problems with monoculture









The wood thrush makes its nest in woodlands in the northern and eastern United States. As patches of woods become smaller, increasing numbers of wood thrush nests have eggs laid in them by the brown-headed cowbird. Cowbirds live in open fields and are nest parasites; the female cowbird flies up to an unattended nest, quickly lays an egg in another bird's nest, and leaves the host parents to raise their "adopted" young. Wood thrushes are decreasing in numbers because ________.

A. habitat fragmentation makes it easier for cowbird parasitism to occur

B. overharvesting in the open fields has driven the cowbirds into the woodlands

C. climate change is reducing nest site availability

D. cowbirds are an invasive species that is rapidly increasing

E. pollution of the open fields has caused a change in cowbird behavior












Most of the world's forests occur as ________.

A. temperate rainforest††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. chaparral†††††††††††††

C. tropical dry forest††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

D. temperate deciduous forest†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

E. taiga and rainforest




















Freshwater resources are ________.

A. mostly used for drinking†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. used primarily for crop irrigation†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. inexhaustible because of the hydrological cycle

D. concentrated in the western United States

E. not necessary for our ultimate survival




















Selection systems are timber harvesting methods that ________.

A. are ecologically harmless†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. very popular with timber companies††††††††††††††††††

C. leave seed-producing or mature trees

D. are the most cost efficient in the short term

E. have the greatest impacts on forest ecosystems



















Forests reach their greatest ecological complexity when ________.

A. they are frequently logged using clear-cutting †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. in the early stages of recovering from logging†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. shrubs and other ground cover plants are absent

D. they are frequently burned

E. they are mature and exhibit a multi-level canopy

















The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) ________.

A. altered the amount of chemicals allowed in water as a result of industrial pollution

B. put all federal land under stringent environmental protection

C. was signed into law by Bill Clinton

D. requires compensation to be given to anyone harmed by deliberate pollution from any business or corporate entity

E. required environmental impact statements for any projects funded by the U.S. government














The precautionary principal†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

A. States that we need to watch consumerism in countries in which the population is growing†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B.Describes the pattern in which a shared resource tends to be degraded†††††††††††††††

C.Defines the movement of toxic fat-soluble substances through the food chain††

D. Says that chemicals should be proven to be safe before being put on the market††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

E. Shows that k-selected species tend to remain near the carrying capacity and tend not to have crashes















An endocrine disruptor might show itself as †††††††††††

A. A metastasis††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

B. Impairment the reproductive organs††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

C. Interference of the nervous system functioning

D.An altering of DNA molecules †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

E.A weakening of the immune system††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††




















You have been studying a large lake ecosystem.You learn that PCBs have been dumped into the water.You predict that the most effected population would be the

A. algae†††††††††††††††††††

B.small fish†††††††††††



E.predatory birds

















Ionizing radiation includes all of the following EXCEPT

A. ultraviolet radiation.††

B. neutrons emitted by nuclear fission.††

C. alpha radiation.††

D. infrared radiation.††

E. X rays.



















In a developing country, you are most likely to fear health threats from

A. hantavirus††††



D.unsanitary drinking water††††††††††††††

E.Ebola virus



















An organism carrying a disease which may be transmitted to humans is called a

A. vector. †††††††††††††††††††††††

B. transfer agent. ††††††††††††

C. bug. †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

D. carrier. †††††††††††††††††††††††

E. causative agent.



















Diseases which cause diarrhea can lead to death by

A. dehydration.

B. exposure to human wastes.

C. disruption of the immune system.

D. secondary infections.

E. causing vomiting.