AP Environmental Science
Resource Links
Earth's Systems Human Population Dynamics Environmental Quality Global Changes Environment and Society Environmental Organizations Environmental Education Opportunities HW Page

I. Interdependence of Earth's Systems: Fundamental Principles and Concepts (25%)
A. Energy Flow
    1.  forms and quality of energy

Resources (Renewable and Nonrenewable) by Historically Black Colleges and Universities
    2.  energy units and measurements
Measurement conversions
   3.  sources and sinks, conversions
Solar Intensity Project by JPL/NASA
Earth's Energy Budget by JPL/NASA
B.  Cycles
    1.  water
Hydrosphere by Geography for Kids
Water in the rivers by Foundation for Water & Energy Education
Hydrometeorology and Land-Surface Projects - high level material
Jason is an oceanography mission to monitor global ocean circulation by NASA/JPL
Physical Oceanography by NASA/JPL
The Water Cycle by Marietta College
    2.  carbon
The Carbon Cycle - Stanford University
Concept Map on Carbon Cycle
The Carbon Cycle - Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg
Dung Fungus! Decomposition & Nutrient Cycling
Global carbon reservoirs - UC Irvine
The Carbon Cycle by Marietta College
   3.  oxygen
Global oxygen reservoirs - UC Irvine
The Oxygen Cycle by Marietta College
    3.  major nutrients
        a.  nitrogen
Nitrogen and the Hydrologic Cycle by Ohio State University
Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences by Ecological Society of America
Nutrient Overload: Unbalancing the Global Nitrogen Cycle by World Resource Institute
The Nitrogen Cycle by Mark Whitelaw
Global nitrogen reservoirs - UC Irvine
The Nitrogen Cycle by Marietta College
        b.  phosphorus
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all life forms - Pennsylvania State University
Global phosphorus reservoirs - UC Irvine
The Phosphorous Cycle by Marietta College

    4.  differences between cycling of major and trace elements
C. The Solid Earth

Earth is divided into several layers - University of Arizona
    1. Earth History and Geologic time scale
Geologic Ages of Earth History - download an Excel worksheet
Geological Time by United States Geological Service
Geological Time Scale by University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    2.  Earth Dynamics
        a. plate tectonics

Geology : Plate Tectonics by UC Berkeley with animation's
Plate Tectonics by  U.S. Geological Survey
Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes by University of Nevada at Reno
        b. volcanism
Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page
The Web's Premier Source of Volcano Info Thinking about Volcano World
The Volcano Information Center is designed for educational purposes by Professor Emeritus Richard V. Fisher at UCSB
Glossary of Volcanic Hazards, Features, and Terminology by USGS
GOES Project Volcano Watch by JPL/NASA
Volcano World Mount St. Helens

        c. the rock cycle

Geology 202 Introduction to Petrology University of British Columbia
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan
THEORY of the EARTH; or an INVESTIGATION of the Laws observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe. By JAMES HUTTON
Minerals, Rocks, and the Rock Cycle from University of Texas at El Paso

        d. soil formation

The answer lies in the soil - good introduction
Factors of Soil Formation by Plymouth County Soil Survey Update
Soil Classification and Soil Formation by Brigham Young University

D.  Atmosphere
    1.  atmospheric history
        a.  origin

Volcanic Gases and the Origin of the Atmosphere by Volcano World & NASA

        b.  evolution

The Earth's Differentiation Into Solid, Liquid, and Gas Layers by University of Michigan
Atmosphere Evolution by UC Davis
The Evolution of a Terrestrial Atmosphere Capable of Sustaining Life by
        c.  composition
Chart of Atmosphere - Illinois State Academy of Science
Start of Layers of Atmosphere by UC Davis
        d.  structure
Earth's Atmosphere by NASA
The Earth's Atmosphere: Near Real-Time Research Imagery by NASA
Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere
E.  Biosphere
    1.  organisms: adaptations to their environments
Adaptations in three categories termed "physiological"; "developmental"; and "evolutionary" by Lund University
Virtual Library of Ecology and Biodiversity by The Virtual Library Project
 Map showing the distribution of some of the most highly valued terrestrial biodiversity world-wide by The Natural History Museum, London, UK
The Biodiversity and Biological Collections Web Server
Roles of Organisms by Marietta College
The Five Major Biomes Marlborough School
    2.  populations and communities
Lecture Notes for Ecology by Ok School of Science and Mathematics
On-Line Lectures by Department of Entomology @ Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
Population Dynamics (advanced)
        a.  exponential growth
Exponential model is associated with the name of Thomas Robert Malthus by VA Tech
Modeling Exponential Growth - Using Logarithms
Exponential Growth and The Rule of 70
Population Ecology by Auburn University
Exponential and Logistic Population Growth by University of Southern Carolina
        b.  carrying capacity
Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Approach to Sustainabilty by  Cornell University

    3.  ecosystems and change
        a.  biomass

Biomass - CREST Center for Renewable Energy & Sustainable Technology
Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Launch:  September 15, 2000 by JPL/NASA
        b.  energy transfer
Energy Flow Through Ecosystems by Cecil Community College
Energy Flow Through the Ecosystem by Marietta College
Food Chains and Webs by Marietta College
Food Pyramids by Marietta College
        c.  succession
Ecosytems in Time by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Succession and Restoration - by Luczkovich and Knowles
Plant Succession by Okanagan University College
Ecological Succession and Its Application to Forestry by Jim Swan, TVI Community College
The concept of succession was first described by Henry Cowles by Perdue University
    4.  evolution and life
        a.  natural selection
Natural Selection and Moths by Life in the Universe.Com
Natural Selection by Oklahoma State
Natural Selection & Adaptation: Lesson by Northern Arizona University
Natural Selections was a series of short films from the BBC
An overview of the history of natural evolution by Mankato State University, MN
Origin of a Species Charles Darwin
        b.  extinction
Extinction by Northern Arizona University
Fastest Mass Extinction in Earth's History by American Museum of Natural History
The Sixth Extinction by Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin
CNN Special Event Millennium 2000: Environment
           Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book by Peter J. Bryant
Mass Extinctions by BBC
II. Human Population Dynamics (10%)
A.  History and Distribution
    1.  numbers
World Population data from the U.S. Census Bureau
Human Population by Paris Museum
Current Statistics on the Human Population by Population Reference Bureau
    2.  demographics: birth rate, death rate, social indicators
Demographic data for one or more countries by US Census
All countries in the world with their capitals, surface area and population by Xist.org
World Largest Economies: Countries and Corporations Ranking
World Energy Projections:  Resources, Consumption and CO2 Emission
Social Indicators compiled by the UN
Current Statistics on the Human Population by Population Reference Bureau

B.  Carrying Capacity
    1.  local
    2.  regional
    3.  global

What Is Earth's Population Limit? forum at Columbia
Planet feels strains of  people pressure by BBC
Population: Why we should worry by BBC
C.  Cultural & Economic Influences

III.  Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources: Distribution, Ownership, Use, Degradation (15%)
A.  Water

        Groundwater by The Groundwater Foundation
What contaminants may be found in drinking water


    b.  oceans
        1.  fisheries

Volume and value of fish landings in Canada
Fisheries Statistics & Economic Division is  part of the National Marine Fisheries Service

        2.  industrial
B. Minerals
    1. Types of Minerals

USGS Mineral Information
USGS Mineral Information Yearbook
Minerals By Class by Amethyst Galleries, Inc.
   2. Location and Extraction of Mineral Deposits
Krup Mining Corporate Brochure (Acrobat)
        a) Subsurface Mining
Description of Conditions Peculiar to Submarine Mining by Louis Frost
Underground Mining by the Chamber of Minerals and energy of Western Australia
        b) Surface Mining
Photo Library of Techniques, etc.  Scroll down half of page for appropriate links like those below.
Pre-Surface Mining Law photos
Before and After Reclamation
Mining equipment and techniques
        c) Open-Pit Mining
Open-pit Mining: Our range of Open-pit Mining equipment include
Open-pit mining description (first paragraph only)
        d) Dredging
Dredging Techniques by Dredging International
        e) Strip Mining
"Strip-mining battle resurfaces in state" by West Virgina Gazette
Open Cut Mining by the Chamber of Minerals and energy of Western Australia

    3.  Estimating Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

C.  Soils
    1.  soil types
    2.  erosion and conservation

      Erosion Prediction Models by USDA

C.  Biological
    1.  natural areas
  • Long-term Climate Trends and Salmon Population
  •     2.  genetic diversity
        3.  food and other agricultural products
    Healthy Eating United States Government
    D.  Energy
        1.  conventional sources
    The world's use of energy will continue its rapid growth at least to the year 2020 - DOE
        2.  alternative sources
    Dow Corning Corporation Biomass Cogeneration Plant
    Real-Time Data Analysis: Investigating the Power of Ocean Waves
    Bioenergy is the use of biomass to produce electricity, transportation fuels, or chemicals by US Dept of Energy
    The Internet source for sustainability and sustainable energy by Solstice
    E.  Land
    Land Use History of North America by USGS
    Rapid changes that are occuring as seen by satellite imagery by USGS
        1.  residential and commercial
    Urban Dynamics Research ftp images by USGS
    Computer animations illustrate the growth of various cities by USGS
    Community plans for selected communities across the United States by HUD
    National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive by USGS

        2.  agricultural and forestry

        3.  recreational and wilderness

    IV. Environmental Quality (20-25%)
    A.  Air/water/Soil
        1.  Major Pollutants

    POLLUTION LOCATOR|Index of Environmental Issues
            a.  types such as SO2, NOx and pesticides
    Acid Rain
    Acid Rain educational activities with the focus on Europe
    Oil Spill Preparation and Response by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    Humans generate pollutants that reduce the quality of the atmosphere by UC Davis
            b.  thermal pollution
            c.  measurement and units of measure such as ppm, pH, ug/L
            d.  point and nonpoint sources
                1)  domestic
                2)  industrial
                3)  agricultural
        2.  Effects on Aquatics, Vegetation, Natural resources, Wildlife
            a.  aquatic systems
    Water Quality Issues by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    Nutrient problems in the waters of the US by USGS
    Atlas of America's Polluted Waters by  EPA
            b.  vegetation
    Rising concern about human-induced changes in the soil cover of our planet

            c.  natural features, buildings and structures
            d.  wildlife

    Pesticides and Wildlife by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    Endangered Species Program by US Fish and Wildlife Service
    Amphibian Declines and Deformities by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    Pollinators by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    Endocrine (Hormone) Disrupters by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    Biological magnification is the tendency of pollutants to become concentrated by Marietta COllege
        3.  pollution reduction, remediation and control
    The Restoration Program by US Fish & Wildlife Service
    B. Solid Waste
        1.  types, sources and amounts
    EPA Office of Solid Waste
    Solid Waste Catalog of hazardous and solid waste documents  in Adobe Acrobat PDF Format: (444 pages)
        2.  current disposal methods and their limitations
    How Landfills Work by Howstuffwork
    LANDFILLS: Hazardous to the Environment
    United States Government Code on Waste Disposal
    Municipal Solid & Industrial Hazardous Waste Landfills
        3.  alternative practices and solid waste management
       Goals for waste stream reduction--procedures--reductions and increases in fees
    Alternatives for Landfills
    Strategies & Alternatives
    C.  Impact on Human Health
        1.  agents
            a.  chemical
            b.  biological
        2.  effects
            a.  acute and chronic
            b.  dose-response relationships
        3.  relative risks -  evaluation and response

    V. Global Changes and Their Consequences (15-20%)
    A.  First Order Effects (changes)
        1.  atmosphere

    Climate and Radiation Research at NASA-Goddard
    Encyclopedia of the Atmosphere by  UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions
            a.  CO2, CH4, stratospheric O3
    World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases
    Methane from Rice Production
    Methane from Livestock
    Methane in Ice-Covered, Continental Shelf Waters of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska
    Climate Forcings in an Industrial Era A discussion of greenhouse gases, their sources, and how climate change is being imposed or "forced" on the planet.
    Oh Where Oh Where Does the CO2 Go? by Inez Fung (NASA)
        2.  oceans:
            a.  surface temperature
            b.  currents
        3.  biota
            a.  habitat destruction
            b.  introduced exotics
            c.  overharvesting

    B.  Higher Order Interactions (consequences)
        1.  atmosphere

    Chemistry & Climate - NASA & JPL
            a.  global warming
    Warmer nights may be slowing tropical forest growth and raising carbon dioxide levels
    Greenhouse Warming: Fact, Hypothesis, or Myth?
    Global Warming - Does it Exist? If so, is it Man- or Sun-made? (Stanford University)
    The Greenhouse Effect: an introduction by Belgian Government

            b.  increasing ultraviolet radiation

    The Antarctic Ozone hole by NASA/JPL
    Is Earth's ozone layer recovering? by JPL/NASA
    Reports to the Nation on Our Changing Planet: Our Ozone Shield by NOAA
        2.  oceans
            a.  increasing sea level

            b.  long-term climate change
            c.  impact on El Nino

    What is El Niño? by JPL/NASA
    El Niño/La Niña and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation by NASA/JPL
        3.  biota - loss biodiversity
    VI. Environment and Society: Trade-Offs and Decision Making (10%)
    A.  Economic Forces
        1.  cost-benefit analysis
        2.  marginal costs
        3.  ownership and externalization costs
    Financial Times Energy Newsletter

    B.  Cultural and Aesthetic Considerations

    Endangered Species Habitat Conservation Planning

    C.  Environmental Ethics

    D.  Environmental Laws and Regulations
        1.  International
        2.  National

    Environmental Protection Agency
    Bureau of Land Management
    American Heritage Rivers Initiative: a new program to help communities restore and revitalize waters and waterfronts.
    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Involvement with Superfund Sites
    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund
    Fossil Fuels Server by Department of Energy
    Energy Information Administration by Department of Energy
    Conservation Education program

      3.  Regional

    California Energy Commission

    E.  Issues and Options
        1.  conservation

    Emerging Issues with Conservation United States Gov.
        2.  preservation
        3.  restoration
         What is Ecological Restoration? University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum
       4.  remediation
        5.  sustainabilty
    "Let's talk sustainablitity" by The Sustainable Community Network
        6.  mitigation

    Environmental Organizations

    Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources

    Earthwatch Institute operates on a very simple but radical notion: that if you fully involve the general public in the process of science, you not only give them understanding, you give the world a future.

    Welcome to the EnviroLink Library, the most comprehensive resource of environmental information available on the Internet.

    Environmental Education Opportunities

    Environmental Sciences Education - Linksmart Categories